4. Environmental change

Degradation through raw material production

  • Identify the effects of agro-industrialization and changes in international production and consumption on the physical environment.
  • Discuss the environmental consequences of increasing international demand for one raw material.
  • Examine the concept of food miles and the environmental consequences of increasing volumes of air freight.

The effects of transnational manufacturing and services

  • Discuss the reasons for and consequences of the relocation of polluting industries (such as some TNCs) and waste disposal (such as ICT, chemical and nuclear waste) to countries with weaker environmental controls and safety regulations.

Transboundary pollution

Homogenization of landscapes

  • Explain the evolution of uniform urban landscapes; the effects of common commercial activity, structures, styles of construction and infrastructure.

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