4.1 – Global Interactions & global power

Global participation

  • Students should be able to describe and evaluate the KOF index, as a measure of global interaction, and describe how this index may be represented spatially.

Think – Using the IB Geography definition of globalization – what data could be collected to help produce an ‘index of globalization’?

“Globalization: The growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology.” IBO

 KOF Index slideshow

KOF index of Globalisation

KOF rankings_2015

KOF Variables in detail

KOF definitions

Evaluating the KOF index

Advantages & disadvantages of the KOF index

Global Core & Periphery

The spatial patterns of global interactions

  • Students should be able to discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions.

The idea of core & periphery looks at the relationships between central areas (the core) and those beyond it (the periphery). Core areas typically have greater wealth and growth potential than those in the periphery. Core areas are often characterized by high productivity rates, advanced technical  know-how and high rates of innovation. They are also seen as being economically and socially dynamic places. As result capital and labour often flows towards core areas from those in the periphery resulting in a disadvantaged periphery. Over time core areas increase their dominance and power over peripheral areas.

   KOF Map 1970                                    KOF Map 1980
KOF Map 1990 KOF Map 2000
KOF Map 2010

Identifying the Core

The Clark-Fisher model shows how the relative importance of  the sectors of employment change over time. Countries from the Core are typically in the post-industrial phase where employment in the quaternary sector (highly skilled service industries like computer programming or management consulting) is increases at the expense of the other three sectors of the economy. The semi-periphery is represented by those in the industrial phase whilst countries in the  periphery would have employment structures similar to those seen in the pre-industrial stage.


The Clark-Fisher Model


Click this link to discover why many people call London a global city.

The AT Kearney Global City Index ranks the world’s global cities – AT Kearney’s 2015 data.

AT Kearney's Global Cities Index 2015 AT Kearney's Global Cities Outlook 2015

Container ports as global hubs – worldshipping.org

Global Financial hubs – Global Financial Centres Index

Number of people per McDonald’s restaurant – Excel spreadsheet from The Guardian

Busiest International Airports – Airports Council International

% of individuals using the Internet – Individuals_Internet_2000-2014 from itc.int

Average Internet connection speeds –



Fastest average speeds (tables from akamai.com).Fastest average Internet speed. (Source: akamai.com)


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