Inward (centripetal) movements
Outward (centrifugal) movements
Counter-urbanisation is the movement of people out of cities, to the surrounding areas. Since 1950 this process has been occurring in MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries). There are four main reasons for counter-urbanisation:
1. The increase in car ownership over the last 40 years means people are more mobile. This has led to an increase in commuting. Also, the growth in information technology (E-mail, faxes and video conferencing) means more people can work from home.
2. Urban areas are becoming increasing unpleasant place to live. This is the result of pollution, crime and traffic congestion.
3. More people tend to move when they retire.
4. New business parks on the edge of cities (on Greenfield sites) mean people no longer have to travel to the city centre. People now prefer to live on the outskirts of the city to be near where they work.
Consider the table below, which shows countries with their GDP and the % of urban population.