Option G – Urban environments

  • The variety of urban environments

Urban characteristics

Factors affecting the location of economic activities in urban places

Factors affecting the location of residential activities in urban places

Urban poverty

  • Urban change

Urbanisation

Centripetal movements

Centrifugal movements

Infrastructure development over time [case study 1]

Urban de-industrialization: causes & consequences

  • Urban stress

Urban micro-climates [case study 2]

Traffic [case study 3]

contested land-use [case study 4]

Managing impacts of urban social deprivation

  • Urban futures

Urban growth projections

Sustainable cities – strategies to manage climatic & geopolitical risks (case study 5]

Sustainable cities – strategies to manage urban ecological footprints [case study 6]

Smart city design using new technology