5.1b – Development indicators & indices

Article from the Guardian about inequality indices – April 2017


You should be able to define indices of infant mortality, education, nutrition, income, marginalization & explain the value of the indices in measuring disparities across the globe

Infant Mortality

Infant Mortality: the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. [Source]


Literacy Rate: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition – the ability to read and write at a specified age. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world. [Source]

Education expenditure: the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. [Source]


Malnutrition prevalence, height for age (% of children under 5): Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under age 5 whose height for age (stunting) is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months. For children up to two years old height is measured by recumbent length. For older children height is measured by stature while standing. The data are based on the WHO’s new child growth standards released in 2006. [Source]


Gross National Income: (now used in preference to gross national product—GNP). The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries. [Data Source]



You should be able to define the Human Development Index & explain its value in measuring disparities across the globe.

1. Human Development Index

The HDI contains three variables: life expectancy, educational attainment and GDP.

UNDP HDI statistics for 2015

Watch these videos:

Africa Human Development Report 2012

And visit this site:


Zolabo – Tree of Human Development  based on the UN HDI


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