4. Reducing Disparities


  • To be able to discuss the different ways in which disparities can be reduced with an emphasis on trade and market access, debt relief, aid and remittances.
  • To develop the skill of searching for the important points in a large document.

Read here what OXFAM demanded in January 2013 with regards to movement on global disparities:

Oxfam seeks ‘new deal’ on inequality from world leaders

A beginners’ guide to Davos

(World Economic Forum held in Davos, Switzerland, 2013)

Disparities can be reduced via:

  • trade – selling things
  • market access – being able to sell things
  • fairtrade – selling things for a fair price
  • debt relief – reduction in a country’s debts or the repayments upon those debts
  • aid – monies donated by one country or organization to another
  • remittances – money sent home by workers who have migrated

Summary notes are available Strategies for reducing disparities

Here is a range of resources for you to use:


What is it? How does it work? Examples
Wikipedia definition World Trade Organisation

The Guardian  has links to many stories about trade & development.

The Guardian – Are export processing zones the new sweatshops, or drivers of development?

info.worldbank.org – A PDF that examines an export processing zone in Malaysia.


What is it? How does it work? Examples

Wikipedia definition


 UN.org MDG relating to market access


 The Guardian – China/Australia free trade agreement.

Informafrica.com – Sierra Leone gets access to EU fish market

Video from CNBC Africa about Kenya losing market access

Wikipedia – Cotonou Agreement


What is it? How does it work? Examples


World Fair Trade Organisation

[mediacore height=”225″ public_url=”http://nis-school.mediacore.tv/media/tipping-the-balance-what-is-fairtrade” thumb_url=”http://cdnassets.mediacore.tv/static/814dc032/images/defaults/generic/generic-l.png” title=”Tipping the balance (what is Fairtrade)” width=”400″]

The Guardian – Fair trade success with chocolate

The Guardian – Fair trade not working 

The Guardian – Fair trade does make a difference.

The Guardian – Fair trade is unjust


What is it? How does it work?  Examples
Wikipedia definition

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 

IMF fact sheet

 BBC – Brazil to write of African debt


The Guardian – Sustainable development goals promise little respite for indebted poor countries.


What is it? How does it work? Examples

 Wikipedia definition

BBC Bitesize (with pros and cons)

 BBC News – Emergency aid in Haiti

Center for Global Development – When does foreign aid work?

 The Guardian – is trade, not aid, the answer for Africa?

The Guardian – Second-hand clothes in Africa

The Guardian – Cast-off UK clothes make Zambia poor.

New Statesman – Does aid work?

Speigel.de – Why development aid for Africa has failed.

Interesting article from the Guardian – Aid in reverse


What is it? How does it work? Examples

 The World Bank – Migration, remittances, diaspora & development

Youtube – TED talk about remittances – Note you may need a VPN to view.

New rivers of gold | The Economist

 BBC News – Remittance cash ‘tops’ world aid

Remittances-Migration Policy Institute

The Guardian -Migrants millions put aid in shade

The Guardian – Interactive resource

Reuters – Indonesian migrants’ remittances fail to develop economy at home


How can we best tackle the disparities which exist globally in terms of wealth and development? – Former students discuss.

And finally, here is a TED talk discussing the future of the MDGs after 2015:

Task: Evaluate the effectiveness of any two of the following strategies that seek to reduce disparities;

1. Trade & market access
2. Debt relief
3. Aid
4. Remittances.


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