Unit 1.3 – Challenges & opportunities

Key Questions:

What are population possibilities and who holds power over the decision making process?

Explain global and regional/continental trends in family size, sex ratios, and ageing/greying.

Discuss policies associated with managing population change, focusing on:

  • policies related to ageing societies
  • pro-natalist or anti-natalist policies
  • gender equality policies and anti-trafficking policies

Describe the demographic dividend and the ways in which population could be considered a resource when contemplating possible futures (offer one case study of a country benefiting from a demographic dividend). 

Key Understanding:

Population change may affect the power balance between groups of people at local, national and international scales.

How is demographic change affecting China?

BBC News – Five charts about the fortunes of Chinese families – Oct 2017


Click here for related info on responses to high & low fertility obtained for the previous DP Geog guide


Policies relating to ageing societies – Japan

Wikipedia – Ageing in Japan

The Guardian (2014) – Japan’s solution to providing care for an ageing population.

Hayashi (2011) in History & Policy – The care of older people in Japan


Pro-natalist policy in Singapore

News Singapore story – Singapore policy (YouTube)

CCTV news story – Singapore’s policy (YouTube)

wikipedia.org – Population planning in Singapore

Singapore population policies

Anti-natalist policy in China

South China Morning Post outlines the One Child policy





Recent changes to the policy – The Guardian (Sep 2018)


Gender equality policies & anti-trafficking policies

World Gender Equality map (The Telegraph)



Sex trafficking bill gets tech firms’ backing – BBC News

Trafficking in the UK – Guardian Oct 2018

The demographic dividend




Video – pro.org explains the demographic dividend

Poor governance can prevent countries from benefitting from a demographic dividend – newssecuritybeat.org

Can India benefit from a demographic dividend? – tribune.com.pk