Local & civil society resistance to global interactions
Any organization or movement that works in the area between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern. Civil societies include non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community groups, trade unions, academic institutions and faith-based organizations.
Use the Slow Food Movement to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of local commercial production to the producer, the consumer and the local economy, compared with the costs and benefits of globalized production.
Use Survival International to describe the role of civil society in raising awareness of local and global environmental, social and cultural issues.
Use Traidcraft to examine the role of civil society in supporting local economic activity and strengthening local cultural values.
|Slow Food||Survival International||Traidcraft|
Secularisation in France
Secularisarion: To remove allegiance from a particular religion. This basically means that there is no specific state religion.Islamaphobia: The fear of, or prejudice behaviour against the Islamic faith.France actually passed a law as far back as 1905 that separated the state from religion. The law was designed to give neutrality to the state and give more freedom to religious expression. From this point the French government did not fund any religion. Although the idea of secularisation has been around in France for over a century, the debate about secularisation has recently resurfaced with new laws about religious symbols.In 2004 the French parliament overwhelmingly voted in favour of banning religious symbols in France. This meant that students were no longer allowed to wear headscarves, crosses, skull caps and turbans. The idea behind the ban was to make all students equal inside the classroom and to promote the idea of being French. Then later in 2010 the French parliament voted to ban the full face veil in public. This time the argument was to improve integration of immigrant groups and to stop the repression of women. The ban was believed to impact about 2000 women. Punishments for women wearing the full veil included fines, punishments for men forcing women to wear the veil included prison sentences.Both laws have proved highly controversial, with many arguing that freedom of choice has been removed, not enhanced and that it is anti-Islamic. Whatever the rights and wrongs are though, this is an example of one country trying to combat the globalisation of religion in order to promote French cultural values. The French government strongly defends its position saying that it is standing up for French values, where the church and the state are separated by law.
2. Geopolitical constraints on global interactions
Try the FT’s trade game – negotiating US tariffs in Hong Kong
Exam style questions:
Evaluate the arguments concerning the adoption of local commercial production rather than globalized production. [12 Marks]
Discuss the role of civil societies in supporting causes at a local scale. [16 Marks]